The Rubik’s Cube of democratic development a normative model of statebuilding
Rada, Péter (2011) The Rubik’s Cube of democratic development a normative model of statebuilding. PhD thesis, Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Nemzetközi Kapcsolatok Doktori Iskola.
The dissertation built on the belief that each model and theory on state failure and statebuilding has useful elements which were incorporated in the alternative model proposed in the dissertation. Consequently, the real added value of the dissertation was the creation of the new theoretic schema which reorganized the exiting knowledge and obliterated the borders of sub-disciplines such as international political theory, international development, or transitology. The outcome of the schema helps understand, explain and forecast the challenges related to state failure and statebuilding. Although, there were several techniques to address state failure most of them were ineffective. The restoration of order in weak states became the self-interest of the entire international community. Today, it is clear that the consequences of state failure are more expensive than the costs of an intervention. In order to understand the complexity of state failure and the necessary response to it, we need to answer three questions. Why is it necessary to deal with failed states? What should be done with failed states to diminish the negative effects? How should be done it? The dissertation’s main aim was to address the above mentioned questioned and to find answers through the hypotheses. 1st hypothesis: State failure means per definition a trap of humanitarian and security threats. Failed states are unable to escape by themselves from this trap. The definition used in the dissertation re-conceptualizes state failure on the basis of security and in theory justifies international interventions. In the world of sovereign states, sovereignty protects all states from intervention under the aegis of the international law, but “cooperative sovereignty” means that sovereignty is not evidently attached to the state. The territory of the world is the common good of the world’s population and the states have the duty to protect the population living on the given territory. The definition of state failure is the failure of the control of this 2 territory which puts the population of the country and the population of other countries in danger. 2nd hypothesis: Statebuilding is the logical answer for state failure. In order to verify this statement, the dissertation examined the possible solutions. The fact that failed states are not able to develop by themselves does not necessarily mean that external actors cannot give useful assistance. In line with “cooperative sovereignty”, the external actors become responsible for the reinstallation and maintenance of the control over the territory. Statebuilding means the rebuilding of the state’s capacity of control the sovereign share. 3rd hypothesis: Despite of skepticism in the literature and in practice, statebuilding has to be complex and sequenced. The alternative model helps understand, explain and forecast the success of statebuilding through six dimensions and four steps which are interconnected during the process. Statebuilding is complex and gradual development through different sequences. The Rubik’s cube analogy is a proof that neither the followers of the “sequencing” school nor those who believe that the development of the state is gradual are right. The analogy with the Rubik’s cube solution methodology is a new schema of thinking about the complexity in which the sequences interpret the timely dynamic of statebuilding and six dimensions develop simultaneously and gradually during the sequences. The steps, the dimensions and the variables which influence the final outcome are different in each situation which posed an enormous challenge in creating a model that could help understand, explain and forecast the outcome of such a process. Consequently, the Rubik’s cube analogy is not a blueprint but a new schema of thinking about the complexity. Despite of the fact that it is impossible to create a general master plan for statebuilding, the model shows that shorter algorithms can be followed in each situation. The dissertation did not intend to criticize existing models or practical experiences. It only aimed at providing a method of thinking about the different dimensions and steps in a single model having in mind that the process is dynamic.
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